Cassava begomoviruses

The most damaging and economically important diseases of crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions are caused by whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses. These viruses are included in the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae and are responsible for causing crop losses ranging from 30% to 100%. Cassava mosaic disease caused by the white fly transmitted begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) is a major threat to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production, which can be intercropped with other plants such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). This study aims to identify cassava begomoviruses on other crops in cassava intercropping systems. Thus, foliar samples showing typical symptoms of virus diseases in cassava intercropping systems were collected from pepper and submitted to PCR analysis and direct sequencing. Total DNA was extracted from collected leaves using the DNA minipreparation method. Three begomovirus species ACMV, EACMV and ALCCMV were identified and characterized in samples. Isolates of these species shared respectively 90%, 93%, 74% and 80% nucleotide identities with begomoviruses. These findings show that cassava begomoviruses can infect other crops and will help in understanding the epidemiology related to white fly transmitted begomoviruses in cassava intercropping systems. The occurrence of new begomovirus species on pepper could lead in case of mixed infections with already known begomoviruses infecting this crop to recombinant actions. This study suggests a change in Bemisia tabaci population or its feed habit. Further investigations need to bring more information about cassava mosaic begomoviruses and their relationships with pepper.

Author(s) Details:

Kodjovi Atassé Dansou Kodjo
Laboratory of Plant Virology and Biotechnology (LVBV), Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie (ESA), University of Lome, Lomé, Togo abd Laboratory of Agroecology, Ecophysiology and Integrative Biology (AEB), Unit EDYSAN FRE 3498 CNRS/University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.

Assion Sétu Mivedor
Laboratory of Plant Virology and Biotechnology (LVBV), Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie (ESA), University of Lome, Lomé, Togo.

Kossikouma Djodji Adjata
Laboratory of Plant Virology and Biotechnology (LVBV), Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie (ESA), University of Lome, Lomé, Togo.

Jérôme Duclercq
Laboratory of Agroecology, Ecophysiology and Integrative Biology (AEB), Unit EDYSAN FRE 3498 CNRS/University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.

Yawovi Mawuena Dieudonné Gumedzoe
Laboratory of Plant Virology and Biotechnology (LVBV), Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie (ESA), University of Lome, Lomé, Togo.


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Recent Global Research Developments in Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease: Impacts, Transmission, and Management

Identifying New Resistance to CMD and Validating Markers for the CMD2 Locus

  • Researchers conducted a study to identify CMD resistance in cassava.
  • Two populations were screened: VNM142 (142 clones from Vietnam) and CIAT102 (102 CMD-resistant clones from CIAT).
  • High heritability was observed in all trials.
  • Eight clones from VNM142 exhibited high CMD resistance.
  • Notably, two resistant clones shared DNA fingerprinting with accessions CR63 (PER262 or TAI9) and KM57 (VNM8) in the genebank [1].

CMD in Zambia

  • CMD poses a rising threat to cassava production in Zambia.
  • Research over the past 25 years has focused on disease surveillance, CMD spread, yield losses, awareness campaigns, and control options [2].

Expansion and Impact of CMD in Africa

  • CMD significantly impacts food security in Africa.
  • Efforts to manage CMD are crucial.
  • Insights into disease spread and management strategies are essential for future control efforts [3].

Molecular Studies on CMD Transmission

  • Studies have explored the transmission of Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in cassava by Bemisia tabaci.
  • Cloning of ICMV and SLCMV replicase genes from cassava has been investigated [4].

References

  1. Thuy CTL, Lopez-Lavalle LAB, Vu NA, Hy NH, Nhan PT, Ceballos H, Newby J, Tung NB, Hien NT, Tuan LN, et al. Identifying New Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease and Validating Markers for the CMD2 Locus. Agriculture. 2021; 11(9):829. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11090829
  2. Chikoti, P.C., Mulenga, R.M., Tembo, M. et al. Cassava mosaic disease: a review of a threat to cassava production in Zambia. J Plant Pathol 101, 467–477 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00255-0
  3. Chikoti PC and Tembo M (2022) Expansion and impact of cassava brown streak and cassava mosaic diseases in Africa: A review. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 6:1076364. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2022.1076364
  4. Hareesh PS, Resmi TR, Sheela MN and Makeshkumar T (2023) Cassava mosaic disease in South and Southeast Asia: current status and prospects. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 7:1086660. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2023.1086660

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