metabolomics

Metabolomics is the systematic study of small molecule metabolites found within cells, tissues, or biofluids. It aims to provide a functional readout of biochemical activities and hence can provide an integrated view of the biochemical status of living systems. Metabolomic studies have been used to better understand various disease states, identify biomarkers, and study the effects of drug treatments or toxic exposures. This chapter will introduce the concepts and technologies behind metabolomics experiments including mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods for metabolite identification, quantification and data analysis will be discussed. A key application of metabolomics data is in mapping metabolites to biochemical pathways and constructing metabolic networks. Various bioinformatics resources for pathway mapping and analysis will be presented such as KEGG, Reactome and WikiPathways. Computational approaches for metabolic modeling and simulation will also be covered. Case studies demonstrating how integrated metabolomic and pathway analysis has provided novel insights into cancer metabolism, drug toxicity and personalized medicine will be reviewed. The chapter will conclude by discussing current challenges and future opportunities in metabolomics and metabolic pathway analysis, such as integrating ‘omics data and applying network-based approaches for systems-level understanding of metabolism.

Author(s) Details:

Ebenezer Morayo Ale
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Olanrewaju Roland Akinseye
HAT Unit, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis & Onchocerciasis Research, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Richard-Harris Nsenreuti Boyi
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Victoria Ifeoluwa Ayo
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Mgbede Joy Timothy
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Steve Osagie Asuelimen
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.


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Recent Global Research Developments in Metabolomics: Unraveling Biochemical Pathways

Metabolites in Cancer Research:

  • Importance: Cancer, due to its heterogeneous nature, has significant socioeconomic impacts worldwide. Understanding altered metabolism in cancer cells is essential for early diagnosis.
  • Role of Metabolites: Metabolites are key players in cancer pathophysiology. They undergo significant changes during cancer development, especially in energy metabolism.
  • Metabolomics Approaches: Researchers employ diverse metabolomics techniques to study cancer metabolites. These approaches include screening metabolites in biofluids and tumor tissues from cancer patients compared to healthy controls.
  • Biomarkers: Metabolites can serve as effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis [1].

Machine Learning and Predictive Modeling:

  • Application in Cancer Metabolomics: Recent advances include using machine learning and predictive models for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response [1].

GC–MS Techniques:

  • Sample Preparation: Developments in GC–MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) focus on sample preparation and preservation techniques.
  • Chemical Derivatization: Various chemical derivatization techniques (in-time, in-liner, offline, and microwave-assisted) enhance metabolomics applications [2].

Wide-ranging Applications:

  • Metabolomics Techniques: These techniques find applications across diverse research fields.
  • Future Prospects: Metabolomics holds immense potential for future advancements in understanding disease mechanisms, drug targets, and drug action [3].

References

  1. Taunk, K., Jajula, S., Bhavsar, P.P. et al. The prowess of metabolomics in cancer research: current trends, challenges and future perspectives. Mol Cell Biochem (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-024-05041-w
  2. Beale, D.J., Pinu, F.R., Kouremenos, K.A. et al. Review of recent developments in GC–MS approaches to metabolomics-based research. Metabolomics 14, 152 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-018-1449-2
  3. Sharma, S., Singh, G., & Akhter, M. (2023). Metabolomics: Recent Advances and Future Prospects Unveiled. https://benthamscience.com/article/136469

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