Sun exposure

Exposure to sunlight is essential for the synthesis of vitamin D, which plays a vital role in maintaining bone health and immune function. However, excessive sun exposure can lead to various detrimental effects on the skin, including sunburn, premature aging, and an increased risk of skin cancer. To mitigate these risks, the use of sunscreen has become a widely recommended preventive measure. This study article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of sun exposure on the skin and the importance of sunscreen as a protective measure. We explore the mechanisms by which ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun interacts with the skin and discuss the adverse consequences of prolonged exposure. Understanding the effects of sun exposure on the skin and the importance of sunscreen is crucial for maintaining healthy skin and preventing sun-related damage. Sunscreen, when used correctly and in conjunction with other sun-protective measures, is a valuable tool for minimizing the risks associated with excessive sun exposure.

Author(s) Details:

Sabira Sultana
Department of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Shafaq Naz
Department of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Naheed Akhtar
Department of Pharmacy, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Musarrat Ijaz
Department of Pharmaceutics, Cadson College of Pharmacy, Kharian, Pakistan.

Sidra Huma
Bahawalpur Medical and Dental College, Bahawalpur College of Pharmacy (BMDC Complex), Pakistan.

Muhammad Shahzad Khan
Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences, GC University Faisalabad, Layyah Campus. Layyah 31200, Punjab, Pakistan

Rizwana Dilshad
Swedish College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Science, Rahim Yar Khan Campus, Pakistan.

Sumbal Tanveer
Riphah International University, Islamabad

Tamseela Shahzadi
Riphah International University, Islamabad

Muhammad Saleem Qureshi
Akbar Institute of Medical Sciences Bahawalpur, Pakistan


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Recent Global Research Developments in Sun Exposure and Sunscreen Use Among Adults

Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019 [1]:

  • This study aimed to assess adults’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to sunscreen in California and Florida.
  • New questionnaire measures were developed and tested, addressing beliefs about sunscreen effects on aquatic/marine environments and awareness of the Hawaii sunscreen ban.
  • Sunscreen use was high, sunburn was common, and knowledge about sunscreen was modest.
  • More education about sunscreen and its ingredients is needed.

Sunscreen Safety: A Review of Recent Studies on Humans and the Environment [2]:

  • This review focuses on the safety of sunscreen active ingredients.
  • It discusses gaps in our understanding and addresses contemporary regulatory developments.

Recent Developments in Tuning the Efficacy of Different Types of Sunscreens [3]:

  • This critical review explores the efficacy of various sunscreens when exposed to UV radiation.
  • It aims to understand overall effects and issues affecting sunscreen efficiency.

References

  1.  Glanz K, Kwong PL, Avelis J, Cassel K. Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022 Feb;19(5):2677. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19052677. PMID: 35270371; PMCID: PMC8910541.
  2. Adler, B.L., DeLeo, V.A. Sunscreen Safety: a Review of Recent Studies on Humans and the Environment. Curr Derm Rep 9, 1–9 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13671-020-00284-4
  3. Parwaiz, S., Khan, M.M. Recent developments in tuning the efficacy of different types of sunscreens. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 46, 1711–1727 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-023-02919-9
  4. Glanz K, Kwong PL, Avelis J, Cassel K. Development of a Survey of Sunscreen Use and Attitudes among Adults in Two Coastal States, 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(5):2677. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052677

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