This book review provides an overview of the current state of arsenic contamination in the environment and presents a biological method for treating arsenic. Arsenic is highly toxic to living organisms and poses a significant risk to human and animal health. The author has conducted a comprehensive and critical review of the existing database on arsenic contamination worldwide in water and soil. Additionally, the review summarizes the characteristics of dissimilatory arsenate-reducing bacteria (DARB) as an example of biological arsenic treatment. DARB are known to contribute to the mobilization of arsenic and other elements from minerals. However, only a few DARB strains have been thoroughly investigated so far, and the influence of these bacteria on the bioavailability of arsenic in the environment is still a topic for discussion.

The review also presents evidence of microbial growth on arsenate based on isolate analyses. Furthermore, the physiology of several arsenate-respiring bacteria is summarized, including Chrysiogenes arsenatis strain BAL-1T, Sulfurospirillum barnesii, Desulfotomaculum strain Ben-RB, Desulfotomaculum auripigmentum strains OREX-4, GFAJ-1, Bacillus sp., Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2T, strain SES-3, Citrobacter sp., Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum sp. nov., Shewanella sp., Chrysiogenes arsenatis BAL-lT, Deferribacter desulfuricans Aeromonas sp. O23A, Anaeromyxobacter sp. PSR-1, and Geobacter sp. OR1.

Moreover, the review briefly explains the extraction of arsenic from a model soil artificially contaminated with As(V) using a novel DARB (Citrobacter sp. NC-1). The author concludes with a discussion of the importance of microbial arsenate reduction in the environment. The successful application and use of DARB should facilitate the effective bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated sites. The review is easily understandable by students and scientists and provides valuable information for selecting microbial reduction of arsenic for environmental cleanup.

Author(s) Details:

Young-Cheol Chang,
Course of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Division of Sustainable and Environmental Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585, Japan.

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