Irregularities in lifestyle, uncontrolled eating habits, and reluctance to exercise can cause various diseases in the body. According to doctors, the more we become dependent on technology, the more likely we are to develop different diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that problems such as obesity, high cholesterol, and thyroid issues are increasing globally. In 2019, an estimated 38.2 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight or obese. Raised cholesterol is estimated to cause 2.6 million deaths (4.5% of the total) and 29.7 million DALYS (the sum of the years of life lost due to premature mortality), or 2% of total DALYS. These diseases can lead to an increase in heart disease patients. We often hear news of sudden deaths due to heart disease in the media. Silent heart attacks or silent acute myocardial infarctions (SAMI) can affect anyone between the ages of 18 to 60. A silent heart attack which is also known as a silent ischemia, is a heart attack that has no symptoms or minimal symptoms.

Some common signs of a silent heart attack include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • A general feeling of unease or discomfort
  • Sweating
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Mild pain in the throat or chest
  • Pain in the back or arms, like a sprained or pulled muscle

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Many mistakes in our daily routine can lead to heart disease. Heart diseases are the leading cause of death globally. Around 17.9 million people died from heart disease in 2019, representing 32% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% were due to heart attack and stroke. Some of these mistakes are made knowingly, while others are due to bad habits that increase the risk of death unknowingly. Various studies show that the number of heart attack patients has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic began. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), COVID-19 can increase the risk of heart attack. The intense inflammation that occurs throughout the body in severe cases likely contributes to this increased risk. But there is a doubt remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 also affects blood vessels directly. The study also reflects that COVID-19 increase the risk of heart attacks and stroke by infecting artery wall tissue. This induces inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques, which finally lead to heart attack.

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Those at high risk of heart disease can be divided into two groups: the first group is made up of those with non-modifiable risk factors, which means we cannot change them. For instance, if someone has a family history of heart disease or is older, they are at a higher risk of developing heart disease. The second group is made up of people with modifiable risk factors, which means they can change their behavior to lower their risk of heart disease. What are the most important rules to follow in order to avoid the risk of heart disease?

1) To reduce the risk of heart disease, there are several steps you can take. Firstly, it is important to quit smoking and avoid tobacco products as they can cause heart attacks. Additionally, it’s essential to limit your alcohol consumption. While moderate drinking is generally okay, daily alcohol intake can increase the likelihood of heart disease.

2) If you’re overweight, you’re at a higher risk of developing heart disease. It’s important to determine your ideal weight based on your height and take steps to lose weight if necessary. To lose weight, consider reducing your carbohydrate intake, eating more vegetables and fruits, and avoiding fried, processed, and red meats. You should also eat home-cooked meals instead of eating out and reduce your salt and sugar intake.

3) Exercise is crucial in reducing the risk of heart disease. You should aim to exercise for at least five days a week. Even if you can’t engage in high-intensity workouts, you can still walk briskly for at least 30 minutes every day. Light exercise or yoga can also be beneficial.

4) Stress is another contributing factor to heart disease. Avoid stress and anxiety as much as possible and practice meditation to improve your concentration. Try not to bring work home and focus on leisure activities like traveling, photography, watching movies, or spending time with loved ones.

5) Finally, ensure that you get proper sleep at night. Inadequate sleep leads to a lack of oxygen in the blood, which can cause the body to release stress hormones, increasing the risk of heart disease.

This news is a creative derivative product from articles published in famous peer-reviewed journals and Govt reports:

1. Liu, T. H., Wu, J. Y., Huang, P. Y., Hsu, W. H., Chuang, M. H., Tsai, Y. W., … & Huang, C. Y. (2024). Clinical efficacy of nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir in patients with COVID-19 and preexisting cardiovascular diseases. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, 22(1-3), 121-128.
2. Aparicio, C., Willis, Z. I., Nakamura, M. M., Wolf, J., Little, C., Maron, G. M., … & PIDS Pediatric COVID-19 Therapies Task Force. (2024). Risk Factors for Pediatric Critical COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. medRxiv, 2024-01.
3. Bardosh, K., Krug, A., Jamrozik, E., Lemmens, T., Keshavjee, S., Prasad, V., … & Høeg, T. B. (2024). COVID-19 vaccine boosters for young adults: a risk benefit assessment and ethical analysis of mandate policies at universities. Journal of Medical Ethics, 50(2), 126-138.
4. Kakavandi, S., Hajikhani, B., Azizi, P., Aziziyan, F., Nabi-Afjadi, M., Farani, M. R., … & Motamedifar, M. (2024). COVID-19 in patients with anemia and haematological malignancies: risk factors, clinical guidelines, and emerging therapeutic approaches. Cell Communication and Signaling, 22(1), 1-33.
5. Griggs, E. P., Mitchell, P. K., Lazariu, V., Gaglani, M., McEvoy, C., Klein, N. P., … & Tenforde, M. W. (2024). Clinical Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Critical Outcomes Among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19—VISION Network, 10 States, June 2021–March 2023. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 78(2), 338-348.

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